This post shows the summary of the novel effective antibiotic discovery by human and resistance mechanism by Staphylococcus aureus.
1. Penicillins: inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins(PBPs)or transpeptidase
Mechanism of penicillin resistance: S.aureus produces beta-lactamase(penicillinase) enzyme to hydrolyze penicillin
2. Methicillins(Penicillinase-resistant penicillins): inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis by binding to PBPs with the presence of penicillinase
Mechanism of methicillin resistance: S.aureus produce unique PBP or PBP2A so methicillin can not bind to the target PBP
This S.aureus is called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA.
3. Vancomycin: inhibit peptidoglycan precursors
Mechanism of vancomycin resistance: produce thickened peptidoglycan to prevent vancomycin into the cells
4. Teixobactin: inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis by binding to lipid II(peptidoglycan precursor) and lipid III(cell wall teichoic acid precursor)
Mechanism of teixobactin: Not discovered yet
Limitation of teixobactin: intrinsic resistance to teixobactin in gram negative bacteria
Hopefully, teixobactin resistant S.aureus will not be happened.